In the first half of the twentieth century, right up until the 1960s, the Australian government sought to create a single, uniform white Australian culture. This was pursued through assimilation policies, which had devastating effects on Indigenous communities.

The 'Aboriginal Problem'

In the first half of the 20th century it was commonly thought that Indigenous people in Australia would inevitably die out. However, the growing population of “half-casts” (a term now considered derogatory for those people of Indigenous and white parentage) soon made it clear that the “Aboriginal problem” was not going to disappear.